Logos in Johannine Literature

 

Logos in Johannine Literature

The irony of the Gospel of John is the apparent crescendo that occurs in the first verse. It is here that John says, “In the beginning was the Word (λογος), and the Word (λογος) was with God, and the Word (λογος) was God.” John uses the word “logos” to affirm Jesus’ deity in his unique historical record of Jesus’ life and ministry. A cursory look through the Gospel would suggest that John utilizes the word “logos” in a variety of different ways other than the majestic affirmation of deity in verse 1. When examining the entirety of John’s literature, this becomes even more apparent. For example, John says in Revelation 22:9, “I am a fellow servant with you and your brothers the prophets, and with those who keep the words (λογος) of this book.” Obviously John is not making an appeal to the deity of Christ as in John 1:1. The usages of this word, then, are numerous.

The Greek word in question simply means “word.” It has its roots in the ancient Greeks, where Heraclitus first posited that the Logos was, “… the universal reason governing and permeating the world.”[1] Thus, logos means “word” but it can also be translated “reason,” particularly in Greek literature. In this way, it can be found to describe spoken and written words as well as concepts. This makes it particularly troublesome to translate accurately. Estes rightly remarks, “Logos is arguably the most debated and most discussed word in the Greek New Testament.”[2] For this reason, it is helpful to examine the variety of ways John utilizes this word in his literature.

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the different ways that John uses and applies the word Logos throughout his writings in the New Testament (NT). This investigation will be executed in several parts. First, the origins of the concept of the word will be traced through history in order to understand how John would have applied it in the first century. This overview will demonstrate that there is not only Greek influence but also Jewish. After this brief survey, different usages of the word through John’s Gospel will be examined. Lastly, a synthesis of all the presented information will summarize and give concluding thoughts to the overall picture.

λογος: A Historical Analysis

Introduction

 

Language is complicated by the fact that it changes over time and usages of different words come to mean different things over the span of history. The word in question, Logos, becomes even more complicated by the fact that several traditions have influenced it, to include the ancient Greeks, Stoics, and the Jewish people. Thus it is necessary to provide a brief summary of how Logos was used in history to provide context to John’s interpretation and reinterpretation of it in his writings. The following will trace the word through several different epochs: first, the pre-Socratic philosophers in ancient Greece; second, the Hellenistic philosophy of Stoicism and Philo; and lastly, the Jewish conception of Logos.

Pre-Socratic Philosophers

There is a great consensus that the usage of Logos in the first century dealt with either concepts or spoken/written words. However, the origins of the word may have little to do with speech. Greek words that have the same root such as λογεια (“I collect) and λογιζομαι (“I count”) suggest that the first uses of the words may have been mathematical. Gamel states, “Mathematicians used it to describe ratios, mathematical descriptions of two measurements in relationship to each other.”[3] As language evolved, it seems that the morphed into an idea of “giving an account.” Even in English, this sentence could involve bankers or storytellers. The latter definition would come to prevail as the pre-Socratic philosophers developed their conception of the universe.

The most important idea that would come out of the word Logos has to do with the Greek obsession with nature. The Greeks believed that there was one overruling principle that could explain the diversity of the universe.[4] It was Heraclitus, one of the first philosophers, that developed this principle and his influence cannot go unnoted. Alexander states that Heraclitus “… understood logos as a principle of universal coherence and saw the world as a collection of unified things all kept in order by logos[5] For Heraclitus, the Logos was not simply a force that exerted itself on the world; rather it was synonymous with the energy that holds that world together. Thus the idea of God, nature, and harmony are tied up in a single word: the Logos.

The Sophists were a group of philosophers in ancient Greece that were heavily influenced by Plato. Plato agreed in principle with Heraclitus but made an important distinction: the world is not given shape by the Logos in the created world, but rather in reason. Alexander says again:

The idea of a dominating principle of reason was lifted to a higher plane by the distinction which Plato made between the world of sense and the world of thought, to the latter of which God belonged. According to Plato, true reality or absolute being consisted of the “Ideas” which he conceived as thoughts residing In the Divine mind before the creation of the world.[6]

Under Plato, the conception of the Logos shifted slightly from cosmic order to rationality in opposition to myth. Thus Plato tightly associated Logos with speech, as thoughts and sounds produce reason.[7]

Additionally, Platonism regards that all things in the created world have “forms.” The original “form” is the most ideal, meaning the most perfect, conception and the things in the visible world are merely imperfect copies of the ideal. Plato would argue that it was the Logos that created these ideal forms. Hodge says, “According to Plato, God formed, or had in the divine reason, the ideas, types, or models of all things, which ideas became the living, formative principles of all actual existences.”[8] This would prove to be an important step in the evolution of Logos, particularly with the rise of Hellenistic philosophy.

Hellenism and the Stoics

While Plato seems to have moved the definition of Logos to reason, Hellenism challenged his ideas and reverted back to the original conception of Heraclitus. This is not to say that Plato’s ideas had no influence on the idea of the Logos. Alexander comments, “Interested more in ethical than physical problems, they were compelled to seek a general metaphysical basis for a rational moral life.”[9] Thus it is seen that the Hellenists morphed elements of both Heraclitus and Plato into their idea of the Logos.

The Stoics were the first to give a comprehensive view of the Logos. In short, the Stoics believed that nature must be ordered in order to live a rational life. The force that ordered nature was Logos. Gamel summarizes:

The Stoics believed all things were composed of matter, which was passive and inert; the active, ordering principle was logos. Stoics understood logos as the immanent power, force, or law in reality. The true god was identified with logos, but the creator of the material world—often referred to as the demiurge—made the universe using the logos as a template. Therefore, what is logical appears so because it is consistent with the ordering principle that shaped the world[10]

From this, there are several key features of the Logos that need to be mentioned: first, the Stoics believed that Logos was a force that was synonymous with order. This was probably influenced by Plato and his desire to see reason as the dominant force of life. Second, the Logos was the creator. Here there is an appeal to deity. While the Logos is a force, there is also a sense that it finds a place among the gods as creator.

Philo of Alexandria was one of the most influential writers regarding the Logos in the Hellenist period. What is unique about Philo is that he was also a Jew. While Philo was heavily influenced by the Old Testament, he also saw through the worldview of the Greeks. Therefore, Philo uniquely attempts to mesh the two traditions together: the revelation of the Old Testament with Greek concepts.

The most radical idea that contrasted Philo’s view is of the Logos being not God, but rather an instrument used by God. He sought to retain the distinctiveness of God so much so that God’s only way of reaching into time, space, and matter was through the Logos. Inge says, “In opposition to the earlier Jewish idea of the Word, Philo’s Logos is an intermediary between God and the world; He is the principle of revelation. Philo is fertile in forms of expression to convey the relation of this principle of revelation to the Godhead and to man respectively.”[11] In this way, the function of the Logos, according to Philo, is to reveal God to man. Philo goes as far as to say that the Logos is the “First-born Son of God.”[12] This serves as a fitting transition to examine the more mainstream views of the Logos according to the Jews.

Jewish Conception of the Logos

In the history of Israel, the Logos would have been in line with the revelation of God. This is the predominate view in understanding the Jewish idea of the Logos. For example, in the creation epic of Genesis 1-2, God brings forth the world into existence by His words. He says, “Let there be light” (Gen. 1:3); thus the very words of God manifest the created world.

Further, the Word of God refers to two distinct aspects of God’s revelation: His written word and His spoken word. The former was achieved through the writing of the sacred text we now know as the Old Testament (OT). The latter was the process of calling and empowering prophets to be the literal mouthpieces of God. Alexander says, “Revelation is frequently called the ‘Word of the Lord,’ signifying the spoken as distinct from the written word.”[13] To summarize, when the OT or the prophets say the phrase, “The Word of Lord,” they are speaking about God’s revelation to man.

This thought would have been prevalent in the Jewish conception of the Logos. While Philo did much to synthesize Greek and Hebrew thought into a unified idea, the Jews rejected many of his ideas. Hodge says, “In opposition to the earlier Jewish idea of the Word, Philo’s Logos is an intermediary between God and the world.”[14] To the Jews, the Logos was not merely some impersonal force that allowed God to communicate with humanity. Rather it was God Himself that appeared to Moses in the burning bush to confirm, “I AM WHO I AM” (Ex. 3:14).

In this way, it can be ascertained that the Jews largely thought of the Logos as the “Word of the Lord.” In examining the Jewish Wisdom Literature of the inter-testamental period, Gregg comments, “We have seen that the Divine Logos has no Greek philosophical associations in any other passage in this book.”[15] While he speaks directly of the Wisdom of Solomon, it can be inferred that this may have been the dominant view of Jews regarding the Logos.

Summary

There are several important points to summarize regarding the use of Logos in history that will be beneficial before moving to John’s usage of the word. First, the Logos is almost universally seen as something divine. The pre-Socratic philosophers and the Hellenist’s almost universally agree that the Logos was either god himself or a force that held the universe together (a term that could be utilized as a “god”). It is only the Jewish idea of the Logos that rejects this view. Second, the role of reason is important in understanding the Logos. Starting with Plato and then continuing on into Hellenism, the Logos imbues the world with order, and thus establishes the rationality of humans and nature. Third, the Logos is seen, in all three categories, of being a mouthpiece. Pre-Socratic thought saw the Logos as the key to unlocking the secrets of the universe; Hellenist’s saw the Logos as god ordering the universe and thus communicated the existence of god; lastly, the Jews saw the Logos as God’s mouthpiece of revelation to man. For John, some of these ideas will manifest themselves in polemics; others will be part of his theology. Now that this foundation has been laid, consideration of John’s usage of the word Logos will now be examined.

John’s Usage of λογος

Introduction

 

John uses the word λογος approximately 58 times throughout all the books written by him in the NT. While the foundation of the secular and sacred uses in both Greek and Jewish thought has been laid, it will be important to understand that John’s use of Logos is not one-type-fits-all. On the contrary, he uses the word in a multitude of ways. Estes remarks:

There are three primary uses for the word logos in the New Testament: (1) Logos in its standard meaning designates a word, speech or the act of speaking (Acts 7:22). (2) Logos in its special meaning refers to the special revelation of God to people (Mark 7:13). (3) Logos in its unique meaning personifies the revelation of God as Jesus the Messiah (John 1:14).[16]

While there are merits to these classifications, they are ultimately unhelpful in understanding the broader picture regarding the use of the word.

For this reason, an analysis of the use of the word throughout John’s literature would suggest that there are at least seven categories of classifying the various ways John uses Logos. These seven categories were assembled using a method that takes into consideration the context in which John uses the word. Thus they may fit neatly into the three categories that Estes suggests, but this method goes a layer deeper. These seven categories are: referring to the divine; Jesus as the Word of God; Speech or writing; belief; abiding; keep Jesus’ word; and the OT word or prophecy. These will now be examined in more detail.

Λογος: The Divine

John uses the word Logos to refer to something that is entirely “other,” that is, the divine. This can be primarily seen in reference to Jesus. John characterizes Jesus as, “the Word (λογος) was God” (John 1:1). In this instance, and in instances such as these, John uses Logos to refer to Jesus as God; in other words, John is making a claim that Jesus is divine.

This can be ascertained through the aforementioned history of the word Logos. It seems as if John is using a polemical argument in his opening of John to make the declaration that Jesus is God. He does this, with great efficiency, in two ways: first, he appeals to the Greeks that Jesus is God. The Greek conception of the Logos was either a force or, in the case of Philo and the Stoics, of the god of the universe. Thus when John refers to Jesus as the Logos, he is making a statement to Greek readers. In essence, John is saying that this impersonal force that communicates on behalf of god or orders the universe is bound up in the person of Jesus. He clarifies this by saying, “All things were made through him, and without him was not any thing made that was made” (John 1:3). As examined, the Logos was seen, almost universally, as the force that created the world. Thus John makes the argument that it was through Jesus that the world was made.

Further, the Greeks appealed to the Logos as a force. John addresses this as well in saying, “And the Word (λογος) became flesh and dwelt among us“ (John 1:14). John counteracts the notion that the Logos was without bodily form. He also uses this to reinforce Jesus’ deity and His humanity. In becoming flesh, Jesus has bound up within Him the whole of deity and humanity.

If John uses Logos to counteract Greek arguments, he also stands up against the Jews. As mentioned, the Jews thought of the Logos as God’s revelation to man. Thus John uses this information to simultaneously attack their wrong notions about Jesus. John makes clear of this in John 1:1: “In the beginning was the Word (λογος), and the Word (λογος) was with God, and the Word (λογος) was God.“ John personifies the Logos with an actual person, not simply the revelation of God to man. Thus he establishes that the Logos and Jesus are synonymous with each other.

John also refers to Jesus as divine on at least two other occasions. In 1 John 1:1, the text reads, “That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we looked upon and have touched with our hands, concerning the word (λογος) of life…“ This also appeals to Jesus’ divinity. Akin says, “In short, the eyewitnesses heard, saw, and touched the Word of life. The eternal Son of God, Jesus the Christ, had come in the flesh.”[17] Revelation also speaks of this, saying, “[John] who bore witness to the word (λογος) of God and to the testimony of Jesus Christ…“ (Rev. 1:2). The “Word of God” here is in reference to the divinity of Jesus.

From this brief survey, it is clear that John utilizes the word Logos in two distinct ways when referencing the divine: first, he uses Logos as a polemic to both Greeks and Jews. He clarifies the truth of the Logos and corrects deficient thinking in both mediums. Second, he uses Logos to reference Jesus’ divinity, as demonstrated through the prologues to Revelation and 1 John. Lastly, it is evident that the power of God resides in the Logos as He co-created with God, He is eternal, and demonstrates His divinity.

Λογος: The Word of God

The phrase “Word of God” is used approximately five times in Johannin literature. John perhaps clarifies what he means by using the word in Revelation 19:13: “[Jesus] is clothed in a robe dipped in blood, and the name by which he is called is ‘The Word (λογος) of God.‘“ It would not be accurate to say that each time the phrase “The Word of God” is used it refers to Jesus, however. As will be demonstrated, the phrase more accurately, and in context, refers to either Jesus, or the words of Jesus.

As already mentioned, Jesus is known by the name “The Word of God.” It is clear from Revelation 19:13 that this is His title. However, it would seem that this instance is unique among the other passages. For example, one passage that must be examined under this auspice is Revelation 6:9. The text reads, “When He opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of those who had been slain for the word (λογον) of God and for the witness they had borne.“ There are difficulties concerning this text. The word concerning Greek grammar does not suggest that it is a title in construction. Rather it seems to be saying that the martyrs in the fifth seal were persecuted for following Scripture.

If this view is correct, than the other instances of the phrase “Word of God” logically follow this progression and Revelation 19:13 is simply a specific title John uses for Jesus. John 10:35, Revelation 1:9, and Revelation 20:4 all are used in this manner. It is interesting to note that each of these references refer back to the OT Scripture. This proves that John uses Logos to refer to the revelation of God to man. Further, the instances of “Word of God” most often refer to the Old Testament Scripture.

Λογος: Speech and Writing

There are several different ways to indicate speech and writing in the Greek language of the NT. The Greek word “λεγω,“ for instance, means “to speak.” The word “γραφω” means, “to write.” Finally, the word “ρῆμα“ also means “word.” Therefore, there are a number of different ways the biblical writers could have used words to convey speech or writing. However, John seems to use the word Logos interchangeably. Over ten times, John substitutes Logos to refer to speech or writing.

It is interesting to note that nearly every time John uses Logos in the Gospel in regards to speech or writing, he is speaking directly about Jesus’ words. For example, John 4:41 says, “Any many more believed because of his word (λογος).” Not only are these verses speaking about Jesus’ words, they overwhelmingly refer to His saving work. A brief survey of these passages will illustrate this: John 7:40 says, “When they heard these words (λογων), some of the people said, ‘This really is the Prophet.’“ John 10:19 says, “There was again a division among the Jews because of these words (λογους).” John 15:3 says, “Already you are clean because of the word (λογος) that I have spoken to you.”

Notice that each instance could be speaking not only about the words of Jesus, but about the powerful nature of Jesus’ words. In John 7:40, the crowd is convinced Jesus is “the Prophet”; there was a “division” amongst the Jews because some believed and some did not in John 10; John 15 suggest that Jesus’ words have the power to heal spiritually. Most convincingly is John 12:48: “The one who rejects me and does not receive my words (ρῆματα) has a judge; the word (λογος) that I have spoken will judge him on the last day.” This interesting juxtaposition

 

shows the power of the Logos: Jesus says that he will judge those who reject His words.[18]

The other instances of the use of the Logos in the ancillary epistles of John and Revelation are uses that give a speech or writing connotation without reference to the previously mentioned power. 1 John 3:18, Revelation 12:11, Revelation 19:9 are a few examples of this usage. These passages do not necessarily focus on Jesus’ words but on other speech. For example, Revelation 19:9 speaks of the Logos of the martyrs. While speech and writing take up a vast amount of the usage of the word Logos in John’s writing, there are still other ways John uses this word.

Λογος: Belief

 

There are at least five passages in John’s writing about the Logos that speak directly to belief. What is meant by “belief” is in the phrase, “the man believed the word (λογος) that Jesus spoke to him and went on his way” from John 4:50. These instances are reflective of believing the words of Jesus or the word of God in some context.

Another example is John 5:24. The text reads, “Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever hears my word (λογος) and believes him who sent me has eternal life.” John 8:37 has similar sentiments: “I know that you are offspring of Abraham; yet you seek to kill me because my word (λογος) finds no place in you.” In the same encounter, Jesus says, “Why do you not understand what I say? It is because you cannot bear to hear my word (λογος).” Lastly, John 17:20 says, “I do not ask for these only, but also for those who will believe in me through their word (λογος).”

All of these verses have a common theme: first, they are all in the context of belief. Jesus has encountered the Pharisee’s and they do not believe His words or Logos. The man “believed” in Jesus’ Logos and he went away. Second, three of these are in the negative. That is, Jesus is speaking about their unbelief in His Logos. These verses clearly demonstrate the already mentioned power of Jesus’ word. It is through His word that comes salvation. Thus the word Logos in these verses, and others, reinforces the notion that John’s usage has implications beyond mere words.

Λογος: Abiding

There are several references to abiding in Jesus’ Logos. John 5:38 says, “And you do not have his word (λογος) abiding in you, for you do not believe the one whom he has sent.” From this the theme continues that Jesus’ “Logos” has special significance. Not only does Jesus’ Logos have the power of God, the power to save, the power to judge, but also the power to abide in. Jesus describes the Logo” “abiding in you,” meaning that it can be known and permeate our lives.

This theme continues in John’s epistles. 1 John 2:14 says, “… and the word (λογος) of God abides in you, and you have over the evil one.“ 1 John 1:10 says, “If we say we have not sinned, we make him a liar, and his word (λογος) is not in us.” Finally, 1 John 2:5 says, “But whoever keeps his word (λογος), in him truly the love of God is perfected.”

Several comments need to be made regarding these verses. First, the Logos can empower those whom it indwells. As mentioned, Jesus says His “word” can abide in humans. Kruse postulates what the “word of God means in the context of 1 John 2:14: “In this context the word of God is equivalent to the command of God, and the command of God, we learn from 3:23, is that people ‘believe in the name of his Son, Jesus Christ, and love one another.’”[19] From this we can state that following the commands of Jesus is how to abide in the “word of God.” Second, the continued theme on the uniqueness of the Logos is demonstrated in these verses. The Logos is not an impersonal force as the Greeks believed; rather it is active and indwelling in all who love Jesus.

Λογος: Keeping His Word

If it is through the Logos that Christians are to abide in Jesus, it is no wonder that Jesus regularly exhorts His followers to “keep His word.” This represents the bulk of John’s use of Logos. Over ten times in John’s literature he references this phrase.

A cursory look at this phrase will suffice for the purpose of brevity. John 14:23 says, “If you love me, you will keep my word (λογος).“ John 17:6 says, “Yours they were, and you gave them to me, and they kept your word (λογος).“ Finally, Revelation 3:10 says, “Because you have kept my word (λογος) about patient endurance, I will keep you from the hour of trial that is coming on the whole world.”

Again, there is a prevalent theme throughout each refrain of John’s use. First, almost every reference is conditional. John 8:51 says, “If anyone keeps my word (λογος), he will never see death.” The keeping of the Logos for John is the key to avoiding spiritual death, as state in this passage. There are other dichotomies: “If you love me, you will keep my word (λογος)“ (John 14:23) against “whoever does not love me does not keep my word (λογος)“ (John 14:24). John 15:20 says, “If they kept my word (λογος) they will also keep yours.“ This pattern is found even in Revelation: “And yet you have kept my word (λογος) and have not denied my name” (Rev. 3:8). Revelation 17:6 seems to be the only passage that escapes this duality. Second, the “Logos” referred to in these passages seems to be best represented by the previous summation: either Jesus’ actual words or the words found in Scripture. Thus when Christians “Keep my word,” as Jesus said, they will have the power to overcome evil.

The examination on the power of the Logos has thus given: the power of God, the power to save, the power to judge, the power to abide in, and additionally, the power to overcome evil by keeping His Word. The next category examines OT Scripture and prophecy.

Λογος: OT Scripture/Prophecy

The discussion up to this point has focused mostly on the spoken word of Jesus. However, John utilizes Logos for both the written word and the spoken word. For example, when confronting the unbelief of the people, Jesus quotes Isaiah. John says, “… they still did not believe in him, so that the word (λογος) spoken by the prophet Isaiah might be fulfilled…“ (John 12:37-38). Jesus directly references OT Scripture and does so that prophecy may be fulfilled. He calls the prophecy by Isaiah the “Logos.”

This is not unique in John’s literature. This exact refrain is repeated three times in John’s NT texts (John 18:9; 18:32; Revelation 17:17). There is an element of prophecy being fulfilled with John’s use of the word Logos. Additionally, there are several instances where John uses Logos in reference to prophecy. For example, Revelation 1:3 says, “Blessed is the one who reads aloud the words (λογυος) of this prophecy…” Additionally, Revelation 22:10 says, “Do not seal up the words (λογυος) of the prophecy of this book, for the time is near.” It seems that John specially uses the word Logos when referring to prophecy for this reason. There are other examples of this usage, to include Revelation 22:18.

What can be ascertained from these examples is the power of the Logos to fulfill and determine prophecy. Thus the Logos has the power of sovereignty in fulfilling prophecy.

Conclusion

The various ways John has applied the word Logos has been noted and examined in detail. These Scriptures represent the bulk of John’s use of the word throughout all of His writings in the NT. There are several points that are worth repeating as a summary.

First, the focus here has been on the power of the Logos. The Logos as the person of Jesus is creator; He is divine and He is eternal. Above and against the Greek and the Jewish concept of the Logos is that these definitions fall short of what the Logos actually embodies. The Greeks believed that the Logos was either in the material world and a mouthpiece of some god. The Jewish idea of the Word was the revelation of God. What John definitively pictures is not only is the Logos more powerful than an animation that communicates from god to man, but rather co-created with God; John’s Logos is not immaterial but “became flesh” (John 1:14) and took on a human body. Against the Jews, John’s Logos is not merely God’s revelation; rather He is the revelation of God, God Himself manifested in a human body. Thus the power of the Logos can be summed up in the words: creator, divine, eternal.

Second, the power of the Logos has been made manifest for all to see. This occurred during Jesus’ earthly ministry and into the Church age with the coming of the Spirit. In the Logos is Jesus whose word humans must receive to be saved. All who forego obeying the Logos are subjected to judgment by the Logos Himself. And yet the Logos has given to His children the power to abide in Him and to overcome evil by keeping His word. Finally, the Logos demonstrated the power of God’s sovereignty in fulfilling prophecy.

While John’s usage of the word Logos is highly diverse, it communicates a myriad and different attributes to cover the majesty and greatness of the power of Jesus. What is clear throughout John’s literature is the polemical nature of his use of the word Logos. It is obvious that John purposefully uses this word in particular to counteract the lies and half-truths of the enemies of God. As stated, there are many other verbs and nouns to communicate speech and writing. And yet John refrains from using them because he has a specific purpose in mind: to show the awesome power of Jesus, the incarnate Son of God: the λογος.

Bibliography

Akin, Daniel L. 1, 2, 3 John. Vol. 38. The New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2001.

Alexander, Arch B. D. “Logos.” Edited by James Orr, John L. Nuelsen, Edgar Y. Mullins, and Morris O. Evans. The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia. Chicago: The Howard-Severance Company, 1915.

Cross, F. L., and Elizabeth A. Livingstone, eds. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Estes, Douglas. “Logos.” Edited by John D. Barry, David Bomar, Derek R. Brown, Rachel Klippenstein, Douglas Mangum, Carrie Sinclair Wolcott, Lazarus Wentz, Elliot Ritzema, and Wendy Widder. The Lexham Bible Dictionary. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2016.

Gamel, Brian K. “Logos, Greek Background.” Edited by John D. Barry, David Bomar, Derek R. Brown, Rachel Klippenstein, Douglas Mangum, Carrie Sinclair Wolcott, Lazarus Wentz, Elliot Ritzema, and Wendy Widder. The Lexham Bible Dictionary. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2016.

Gregg, J. A. F. The Wisdom of Solomon in the Revised Version with Introduction and Notes. The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1922.

Hodge, Charles. Systematic Theology. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997.

Inge, W. R. “Logos.” Edited by James Hastings, John A. Selbie, and Louis H. Gray. EncyclopÊdia of Religion and Ethics. Edinburgh; New York: T. & T. Clark; Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1908–1926.

Kruse, Colin G. The Letters of John. The Pillar New Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: W.B. Eerdmans Pub.; Apollos, 2000.

Newman, Barclay Moon, and Eugene Albert Nida. A Handbook on the Gospel of John. UBS Handbook Series. New York: United Bible Society.

[1] F. L. Cross and Elizabeth A. Livingstone, eds., The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), 998.

[2] Douglas Estes, “Logos,” ed. John D. Barry et al., The Lexham Bible Dictionary (Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2016).

[3] Brian K. Gamel, “Logos, Greek Background,” ed. John D. Barry et al., The Lexham Bible Dictionary (Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2016).

[4] Arch B. D. Alexander, “Logos,” ed. James Orr et al., The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia (Chicago: The Howard-Severance Company, 1915), 1912.

[5] Brian K. Gamel, “Logos,” The Lexham Bible Dictionary.

[6] Arch Alexander, The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, 1912.

[7] Gamel, “Logos.”

[8] Charles Hodge, Systematic Theology, vol. 1 (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997), 450.

[9] Alexander, 1912.

[10] Gamel, “Logos.”

[11] W. R. Inge, “Logos,” ed. James Hastings, John A. Selbie, and Louis H. Gray, Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics (Edinburgh; New York: T. & T. Clark; Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1908–1926), 135.

[12] Ibid, 135.

[13] Alexander, 1913.

[14] Inge, Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics, 135.

[15] J. A. F. Gregg, The Wisdom of Solomon in the Revised Version with Introduction and Notes, The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1922), xxxvii.

[16] Douglas Estes, “Logos,” The Lexham Bible Dictionary.

[17] Daniel L. Akin, 1, 2, 3 John, vol. 38, The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2001), 53.

[18] Barclay Moon Newman and Eugene Albert Nida, A Handbook on the Gospel of John, UBS Handbook Series (New York: United Bible Societies, 1993), 424.

[19] Colin G. Kruse, The Letters of John, The Pillar New Testament Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: W.B. Eerdmans Pub.; Apollos, 2000), 93.

 

Note: this work was turned in as a paper for the course, “Theology of the New Testament.” It has been reproduced here as my own intellectual property.

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